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  • 古巴-简介
  • Cuba--Introduction




Welcome in the big Island of Cuba, the largest in the Antilles. With almost 6000km of beaches of white sand, its tropical flora covering its many mountains, its colonial cities and its peaceful countryside, it is easy to fall under its charm.

The European and African influences, mixed with the aboriginals and Asians, gave birth to a very characteristic and diversified people. They are a warm people and very sympathetic. Their blood is hot, especially when the hypnotic rhythms of Cuban music are heard nearby.

The Cuban economy consists mainly of sugar cane, rum, tobacco, coffee, exotic fruits, fishing, pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries, nickel mining and especially tourism. Education is free for all the levels and is obligatory until the end of high school. Medical services are free for all Cubans.


Essential Facts  
  • Capital :
  • Currency :
    Cuban convertible Peso
  • Driver's License :
    International license recommended. Must be 21 years old and have a credit card
  • Electricity :
    110 V, 60Hz, American plugs. Hotels often have 220 V .
  • Entry Requirements :
    A valid passport throughout your stay is required as well as a tourist card delivered by your travel agency, the airline companies or the Cuban consular establishment.
  • GMT Time :
    -5hr. Daylight savings time is applied.
  • Government :
    Communist state
  • Land size :
    110 992 km2
  • Language :
    Spanish, basic English in resort areas
  • National Airlines :
  • Population :
    approx. 11,451,652
  • Religion :
    The catholic religion is the most widespread but the afro-Cuban practices are very present.
  • Requirred Vaccines :
  • Tourist Season :
    Novembre through April
  • Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada :
    Consult the "Country Travel Report" of Cuba


    Cuisine, Culture and History

    The Cuban kitchen blends Spanish and African influences with a dash of Chinese. Aliaco is the national dish: a kind of stew including vegetables, meat (traditionally pork) and seasonings. Other traditional dishes include seafood, roasted pig, fried plantains, black beans with rice, tamales and baracoa chicken.

    The national drink is rum, whether it is refined, white, amber or aged. If one likes to drink it alone or with ice, it is preferable to choose an amber or aged rum. For cocktails, on the contrary, the white rum (carta blanca or carta plata) is preferred because it is at the base of most cuban cocktails such as the Cuba Libre, the Mojito, the Daiquiri, the Cubanito and the Saoco.

    The Cuban culture is much diversified with its Spanish, African, French and Chinese roots. Many Cuban artists have greatly influenced, on an international level, the worlds of literature, Fine arts, cinema, dance and theatre.

    A particular mention must be made for Cuban music, to which we owe universal rhythms such as the danzón, the son, the bolero, the mambo and the cha cha cha, to quote only but a few.

    Several prestigious cultural events are organized regularly in all these disciplines, as for example the literary contest of Casa de las Américas, the international Ballet Festival and the New Latin-American Cinema Festival.

    Flora & Fauna
    In Cuba, the flora and fauna are very rich and diverse, making it a paradise for ecotourism. One finds more than 300 protected areas, accounting for approximately 22% of the territory. Cuba counts six zones classified by UNESCO in the Biosphere Reserves: the Peninsula of Guanahacabibes, the Sierra del Rosario and Marshes of Zapata, to the west, the area of Buenavista, in the center, the Baconao Park and Cuchillas del Toa, to the east.

    The lush tropical forests, the mountainous masses and the semi-desert regions shelter exotic orchids, cacti and mangroves. And then one finds the splendid Cayos. Defined by 5 archipelagos, one counts approximately 4195 tiny islands. These are favoured by diving and nature enthusiast for its corals.

    Its fauna includes parrots, pelicans, turtles on the coast, iguanas, crocodiles of Guama, as well the smallest frog (12 mm long) in the world.

    Cuba displays magnificent coral reefs, underwater caves, vertical walls, cliffs and channels. More then a thousand fish species are to be viewed, 200 types of sponges and 60 varieties of coral. Several sunken pirate ships and Spanish galleons can be found.

    Cuba is situated between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, at the mouth of the Gulf of Mexico. This archipelago consists of two large islands, the Island of Cuba and the Island of Youth, and counts nearly 4195 tiny islands.

    The Island of Cuba measures 1200km (from the Cape de San Antonio, western end, to the Point of Maisi, in the East) where close to 400 beaches natural are to be found.

    The plains prevail but it has four important mountainous areas: the Cordillera of Guaniguanico, in the west, the Cordillera of Guamuhaya, in the center, the Sagua-Baracoa and the Maestra Sierra, in the east.

    Its history begins in 1492 when Christopher Columbus landed on its shores. Not long after the conquest and the colonization of Cuba followed. At the beginning of XVIe the first seven cities are founded: Baracoa, Bayamo, Santiago of Cuba, Santísima Trinidad, Sancti Spiritus, Santa María del Puerto del Príncipe (Camaguey) and its capital San Cristòbal de Habana.

    After the exhaustion of the natives, African slaves were imported to work. The latter largely influenced the population and the culture of this island. With the end of the XIX century a series of battles for independence fail until the Triumph of the Revolution in 1959. Fidel Castro then installs a socialist republic. Cuba lives by modest means since the embargo of the United States in 1960.


    Cuba has produced great medaled athletes in sports such as boxing, judo, athletics, volley ball, fencing, wrestling, chess and in weight lifting. But baseball remains the most popular sport.

    Diving enthusiasts will adore the magnificent coral reefs, underwater caves, vertical walls, cliffs and channels that Cuba has to offer. More then a thousand fish species are to be viewed, 200 types of sponges and 60 varieties of coral. Several sunken pirate ships and Spanish galleons can be found. Those who prefer snorkelling should head for the coral reefs of Cayo Piedra, Cayo Coco and Guardalavaca.

    Many Jeep safari tours are offered in the countryside of Cayo Coco or the Peninsula of Zapata where the largest marsh of the Caribbean is. Trekking in the area of the Sierra Gran Piedra has gained enormous popularity in recent years.


    Banks / Money, and Climate

    Banks & Money
    Since November 2004, all purchases will have to be made only with the Cuban convertible Peso (which is par with the American dollar). Canadian dollars, Euros and British pounds can be exchanged for the Cuban convertible Peso without the premium of 10% being charged for American dollars.

    Credit cards and the travellers' cheques are widely accepted unless they are issued by an American bank.

    Usually hotels will exchange money but you will get a better rate at an exchange office.

    The Cuban climate is very pleasant because it is located in a moderate sub-tropical zone. One distinguishes two seasons: the rain season (May-October) and the dry season (November-April). The average air temperature is 25,5degrees C and that of coastal water 25degrees C. There are nearly 330 sunny days per year. The annual average of relative humidity is 78%

    For monthly average temperatures please refer to your destination of choice.

    J F M A M J J A S O N D
    Air Temperature (oC) 23 23 24 25 27 28 28 28 28 28 25 24
    Water Temperature (oC) 25 24 25 25 26 27 28 28 28 27 26 25
    Rainfall (mm) 45 38 47 72 177 216 139 158 184 190 79 41

    Cuba is equipped with a network of telephone services which guarantees direct communication to any part of the world, and within the territory.

    The country code for Cuba is 53.

    Cuba has a system of primary care considered unique in Latin America. All medical services are free for all Cubans. In addition to specialized units, there is a vast network of centers for special care. Cuba leads most countries in the world in production of interferon, a protein that is naturally produced in our bodies to fight viruses by amplifying the immune system.

    There are no required vaccines to enter Cuba however precautions do need to be enforced. The most common illness is the traveler's diarrhea (turista), usually showing up on the third day. Drink bottled water and wash your hands often. Make sure your food is thoroughly cooked and avoid open-air stands.

    The following vaccines are recommended for any tropical destination: hepatitis A and B, rabies, typhoid, tetanus and yellow fever.

    Official National Holidays
    January 1: Liberation Day. Anniversary of the Triumph of the Revolution
    May 1: International Workers' Day
    July 25, 26 and 27: Festivities for the Day of National Rebellion
    October 10: Anniversary of the beginning of the Independence Wars
    December 25: Christmas Day

    Cuban cigars and rum are the most popular souvenirs, followed by exotic juices, wood handicraft, congas (traditional drum), Cuban music, postcards and posters.

    It is important to remember that as you travel in Cuba you may witness very different life styles and attitudes, such as poverty, from what know in Canada or in Europe. With that in mind be aware of you actions and behaviour. Do not provoke by flashing expensive jewellery or accessories such watches and cameras.

    One can photograph and film freely, except in zones subject to restrictions or signposted, particularly those of the army.

    Taxes & Tips
    A departure tax of 25 Cuban convertible pesos, per person, is to be paid when leaving the country.

    Tourism employees count on tips to make a living. People who deserve US$1 tip include tour guides, hotel guards, bus drivers, attentive restaurant staff or anyone in the service industry who goes beyond the call of duty. Tipping can quickly open doors or clear up situations, but one should never offer money to officials or give money to beggars. Taxi drivers will appreciate 10% of the price of the meter.

    Paladares (small family run restaurants) may add 10-20% on your bill as a 'service tax'. If you suspect a scam (that the waiter will not get his tip), ask to keep the bill. Also do not agree to be lead or accompanied to a restaurant, such as by a taxi driver, because their 'fee' will be added to your bill.

    The country has nine international airports, and eight regional airports. Cuba counts more than 50,000km of roads and lanes, 14,000km of which is asphalted, to be discovered with a rental car. Train travel is not advised.

    Cuba has taxi, minibus and motor bikes services. The bus circuits in Havana and Varadero include the most interesting sites. Budget travels by bus, in the popular destinations of the country, are also proposed by the Viazul company.

    cayo coco



    Ciego de Avila province is an agricultural paradise with its rich soil and plentiful water yielding enviable crops of citrus fruits, bananas and pineapples. Its traditions and culture are influenced by Spanish, Haitian and Jamaican immigrants.

    Offshore, the tiny islands and keys of Jardines del Rey (the King's Gardens) constitute a tourist treasure. They are immortalized in Ernest Hemingway's novel, Islands in the Stream.

    Cayo Guillermo and Cayo Coco (named after the white ibis, coco) ar covered by thickets of mangroves, palms, other forestation and gorgeous beaches.

    Cayo Coco Map

    Cayo Coco has a 22-kilometre strip of beach and breathtaking coastline. La Jaula, Las Coloradas and Los Flamencos beaches are considered the best in the keys.

    Cayo Guillermo's five kilometres of beach eagerly await visitors wanting to commune with nature. They can doze under the Royal palms, snorkel, swim and sunbathe.

    Cayo Coco has a warm climate with a rainy season from May to November. There is always an agreeable breeze in any zone of the archipelago.

    Temperature in Celcius J F M A M J J A S O N D
    Maximum 27 27 28 29 30 31 32 32 31 31 28 27
    Minimum 17 16 17 19 20 21 22 22 21 21 19 17
    Rainfall (mm) 10 20 30 40 110 150 120 160 170 160 40 20

    Flora & Fauna
    Biosphere Reserve Buenavista
    Most islands are part of this reserve and display mangroves and everglades, flamingos and roseate spoonbills. There are over 200 birds species located here.

    La Leche Lagoon
    This lagoon is famous for the sodium carbonate deposits that turn the water a milky white. The lake is a refuge for flamingos, snooks and tarpons. It is a popular fishing spot, and is often used for sailing regattas.

    The keys are in the agricultural province of Ciego de Avila, off Cuba's Atlantic coast, whose red clay soil is the most productive in the country. Today, a 27-kilometre causeway connects the mainland to the keys. Cayo Coyo is part of the Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago. There are 2517 keys and islets in the Jardines del Rey.

    Discovered by the Spaniards in 1513, the Cayos were named Jardines del Rey (the King's Garden) in honour of the reigning Ferdinand the Catholic. Later, many Spanish, Haitian and Jamaican immigrants came to work the land.

    Specialties & Characteristics

    Redonda is a favorite place for largemouth bass fishermen. The average weight of the bass caught here is seven pounds, but some 1,500 largemouth bass weighing more than 10 pounds each have been caught here. The lake gained fame in the early 1980s when a group of American fishermen caught 5,078 bass in five days.


    • Airport :
      Cayo Coco Airport
    • Airport Tax :
      A departure tax of 25 Cuban convertible pesos per person is to be paid when leaving the country.
    • Distance from Airport :
      15 minutes
    • Tourist Season :
      December through April

    Taxis and sometimes minibus are available. Budget travels by bus, in the popular destinations of the country, are also proposed by the Viazul Company.

    Thousands of kilometres are to be discovered with a car, jeep or motorcycle rental. A moped ride along a winding path gets you up close and personal with the flora and fauna.
    Activities & Sports
    The islands are part of Cuba's northern coral reef, which yields spectacular snorkeling and diving. These keys provide a perfect backdrop for water sports such as boating, windsurfing and sailing.

    For those who enjoy fishing you can access the International Center of Sports Fishing. You can head for Cayo Guillermo, favoured by Hemingway and see his boat, called the Pilar, docked in the waters.

    Jeep safari tours will take you from your resort to La Redonda Lake for a boat tour where you'll visit a crocodile breeding farm, travel to the top of Cunagua Hill and go horseback riding.

    For archaeology buffs, the Moron Museum and the one-kilometre road to Jucaro, declared a World heritage Site by UNESCO, are important experiences.

    Attractions & Museums
    Cayo Guillermo
    To the west of Cayo Coco boasts the highest sand dune in the Caribbean. Ernest Hemingway spent a great deal of time camping, fishing and boating on this key.

    Turiguano Island
    This island has a lovely Dutch influenced village and is renowned for its cattle-raising. It is connected by a 23-kilometre road.

    La Trocha
    Drive along this military route built in the 19th century. It stretches for 68 km with its fortifications, barbed wire and an ancient railway.

    Other sites include the Diego Velazquez lighthouse in Paredon Grande and La Guira, a recreated charcoal maker's settlement.

    Ciego de Avila
    Independence Avenue is the heart of the city, where attractions include the Principal Theatre, House of Culture, Raul Martinez Art Gallery, Jose Marti Park and San Eugenio de Palma church. Its architecture is defined by unique portals, arches, tiles roof and neoclassical columns. This region is known as the land of the pineapple.

    It is nicknamed the City of the Rooster because of the bronze statue of a rooster perched at the city's entrance. Developed by the sugar cane and cattle production, it features the Casa de Embarrado and the Casa de la Trova where you can enjoy local music.

    Most clubs are located in the hotels. Two recommended clubs outside of the resorts are:

    Jabali Cave
    Enjoy a special night in a brightly decorated cave. Your evening includes a show, disco and four cocktails.

    El Parador de San Francisco
    This club offers good food, music and dancing.



    A variety of excellent resorts, from the comfortable to the luxurious, line the beach. These are mostly sold under All Inclusive packages. Hotels on the mainland are available in Moron and in Ciego de Avila.

    Cuban cigars, rum and coffee are the most popular souvenirs, followed by wood handicraft and congas. Cuban music recordings are a must as well.


    Most restaurants are located in the hotels and resorts.



    Considered by many as the world's most beautiful beach, Varadero is part of a peninsula that stretches far out into the calm waters of the Atlantic. Its 21-kilometre strip of fine white sand is an ideal vacation spot for sun-lovers, water babies and golfers. The beautiful Varahicacos Reserve offers wonderful fauna and flora, and a few archaeological findings.

    If you also have a craving for art, history and culture then head to the nearby cities of Cárdenas and Matanzas, the provincial capital. Nature seekers will be delighted with the Zapata Biosphere Reserve which is famous for its ecotourism and history.
    The famousVaradero beach, sometimes referred to as the world's greatest beach, has long been the pride of Cuba.

    Measuring 21 km, this beach is covered with abroad strip of the finest white sandimaginable and has an average year-round water temperature of 24° C to 26° C.

    Its location on a narrow peninsula ensures that this tropical hot climate is constantly cooled by tropical breezes.

    Temperature in Celcius J F M A M J J A S O N D
    Maximum 25 25 27 27 29 30 31 31 30 28 27 25
    Minimum 19 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 23 23 22 20
    Rainfall (mm) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

    Flora & Fauna
    TheVarahicacos Ecological Park, right on the Varadero peninsula, offers gentle paths through the scrub forests and a series of small caves. Not to be missed isEl Patriarca, a 600-year-old-cactus as tall as a tree grows at the end of the Hicacos peninsula, and theRuinas de la Salina, a natural salt pit where leathers and meats were prepared over the centuries.

    At about one hour is theGreat Natural Park of Montemar, located in the Cienaga de Zapata Biosphere Reserve. This park addresses the multiple specialties of nature tourism such as open sea diving or speleodiving in sunken caves.

    Bathing in the northern shores of the Atlantic Ocean, the Mantanzas province is located quite to the west on the island of Cuba. Varadero is situated on the long and narrow Hicacos Peninsula, between the bays of Matanzas and Cardenas, and enjoys a continuous delightful breeze.

    The first inhabitants of the island were the Siboney Indians, a sub-group of the Cubacanan people. The Siboney left many traces such as decorated caves with drawings and geometrical designs. Soon after the arrival of the Spanish conquerors in the late 16th century, salt was discovered and mined for profit. Black slaves from Africa were also brought in the work after the indigenous population was exhausted. These slaves left an important mark on the culture and religious practices. Many Spaniards were killed as well by the frequent pirate attacks.

    Matanzas with time became a popular cultural center were musicians, poets and writers flocked to. This province is home to two music festivals and many cultural activities take place in the culture centers, theatres and cabarets.

    Specialties & Characteristics
    You can attend abaseball gameat the Victoria de Giron Stadium in Matanzas.

    Bellamar Cave, on the outskirts of Matanzas, is one of the Caribbean's largest and most beautiful underground formations. Two kilometres of underground passages are covered in peculiar stalagmites, stalactites and calcite crystals. Large mural paintings, numerous fossils, and other objects prove that the area was inhabited some 1600 years ago.
    • Airport :
      Juan Gualberto Gomez International Airport
    • Airport Tax :
      A departure tax of 25 Cuban convertible pesos per person is to be paid when leaving the country.
    • Distance from Airport :
      15 km
    • Tourist Season :
      December through April

    Local Festivities
    April - Electroacoustic Music Festival
    November - Caribbean Music Festival

    Taxis and sometimes minibus are available. The bus circuits in Varadero include the most interesting sites. Budget travels by bus, in the popular destinations of the country, are also proposed by the Viazul Company.

    Thousands of kilometres are to be discovered with a car, jeep or motorcycle rental. A moped ride along a winding path gets you up close and personal with the flora and fauna.
    Activities & Sports
    Being a beach resort, Varadero specializes in water sports. Absolutely everything is available here:sailing, kayaking, windsurfing, yachting, water skiing, jet skiing... you name it, Varadero has it. You can even gohigh-sea fishingor gohorseback riding.

    With 25 dive sites, Varadero is sure to pleasediving and snorkelingfanatics. One great site is theCayo Piedra Underwater Park, located to the northeast, it features several shipwrecks where schools of colourful, tropical fish and crustaceans gather.

    El Varadero Golf Clubis a magnificent 18-hole par 72 championship course on the peninsula, marked by an intricate system of lagoons.

    For those with a taste for the extreme, you can goparachutingat the Varadero International Parachute Center.

    Ambrosio Cave
    It was used as a ceremonial spot by the area's primitive inhabitants and later by runaway slaves. Here you can view about 70 well preserved pictographs.

    Other archaeological caves include theMusulmanes Cavesused as dwellings, theCalero Funeral Cave, theSanta Catalina Caveand theBellamar Caves(see theSpecialties & Characteristicssection)

    Attractions & Museums
    TheVaradero Municipal Museumdisplays archaeological artefacts and objects related to Cuban sports. The house dates back to the 1920s and is filled with old furniture. TheCentre Plaza Americais a well appointed international convention centre that incorporates shopping malls, restaurants and amusement centres. TheSanta Elvira Churchdates back to 1938 and is known for it peculiar structure consisting of stones and wood.Josone's Oasis, near the beach, has typical tropical vegetation in its gardens and groves, as well as lagoons.

    Across the bay from Varadero is Cardenas, where the Cuban flag was first flown. The town's story is told through its architecture and museums. Make a stop at Jose Antonio Echevarria's birthplace and the Polyvalent Museum. It is noted for three unusual monuments: replicas of a bicycle, a horse-drawn carriage and a crab cast in concrete that represents the abundant crustaceans in the area.

    Matanzas City
    The Vigia Square has the Junco Palace Historical Museum, the 19th century Sauto Theatre and an exhibition of ancient fire-fighting equipment in the former military headquarters. Visit the Le Triolet French pharmacy, built in 1882, is still stocked with ancient drugs, utensils and porcelain medicine flasks, all preserved under glass on the store's original shelves of hand-finished Cuban wood. At the mouth of the river you will find El Morrillo where the bodies of two revolutionaries rest in a mausoleum. The castle also has an archaeological museum from where you can see the Canimar woods.

    Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, Old Havana is a colonial marvel unlike any other in the world. Visit the La Real Fuerza Castle, Arms Square, Obispo Street, Cathedral Square and other points of note. Walk in Hemingway's footsteps by visiting his haunts such as the fishing village of Cojimar; his former home and Finca Vigia, which is now the Hemingway Museum. Finally you can enjoy a cabaret show at the famous Tropicana.

    Pinar del Rio
    The world's finest tobacco grows here in the spectacular Vinales Valley. You can visit the provincial capital and then go to a tobacco farm, the Indian Cave and the Archaeological Mural. This region counts two biosphere reserves recognized by UNESCO: the Sierra del Rosario and the Guanahacabibes Peninsula. Bathe in the mineral and medicinal hot springs of San Diego de los Banos spa, admire the unique cork palm and discover the waterfalls in Soroa that are surrounded by an orchid garden with 700 species. Make sure to buy a bottle of the Guayabia del Pinar liqueur, made exclusively in this region.

    In the heart of the Zapata Peninsula, Guama resort is home to a reconstructed Indian village on Treasure Lake. Life-sized sculptures of Taino Indians tell their story, while a nearby crocodile breeding farm lets you get up close and personal with those unique reptiles. This excursion combines past and present. At the Bay of Pigs, a museum displays mementos of the unsuccessful mercenary invasion there. If you would like to go for a swim, head to Playa Giron or Playa Larga, the other beach on the Bay of Pigs.

    La Casa de la Culturapresents all sorts of cultural events like poetry readings, folk groups, troubadors concerts, Rumba nights and Afro-Cuban ritual dances.

    Varadero's plentifulCabaretsfeature Cuban and international drinks and rhythms. Resorts, theatres and the Amphitheatre hostvariety shows.

    This city has a count of nearly100 clubs and discothequesfor you to dance the night away.


    Today, a broad range of hotels and resorts on this wide, sandy beach offer affordable vacations to please any pocketbook. Most resorts operate with All Inclusive packages but a few independent simple hotels remain.

    The Centre Plaza America is a well appointed international convention centre that incorporates shopping malls, restaurants and amusement centres.

    Cuban cigars, rumandcoffeeare the most popular souvenirs, followed by wood handicraft and congas.Cuban musicrecordings are a must as well.

    Several old mansions such as Du Pont, who houses theLas Americasrestaurant, have been converted into restaurants who specialize inbarbecued meat and shellfishas well, international cuisine promise satisfaction for every taste.

    Desert is a must at theCoppelia Ice Cream Parlourwhich has countless flavours of creamy Cuban ice cream.





    República de Cuba(西班牙语)
    Flag of Cuba.svg Coat of Arms of Cuba.svg
    古巴国旗 古巴国徽

    国家格言Patria o muerte(西班牙文)



    首都 哈瓦那
    时区 UTC-5

    官方语言 西班牙语
    官方文字 西班牙语
    主要节日 国庆日1月1日1959年起)

    政治体制 议会制议行合一社会主义共和国


    • 总计:
    • 人均:





    • 0.863-高

    中央银行 古巴中央银行
    货币单位 古巴比索(CUP)
    • 立国日期:
    • 立国事件:()

    国家代码 CUB
    国际域名缩写 CU
    国际电话区号 +53


    ( For English introduction to Cuba, please find more info at our Canadian government website: Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada: Cuba

    关于古巴的汉语详细介绍,请参看:维基百科-自由的百科全书网站, 百度-百科名片网站., 以及 中华人民共和国外交部古巴国家概况.






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